Fillers for printing inks

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One of the important components for formulating of inks is fillers or additional pigments. Basically it is important that ink is not too concentrated with pigments because too much pigment will give negative impact on printability of ink.

Market for fillers to grow

Market for fillers to grow

Fillers do not affect the tone of ink, but they have changed rheological properties of printing inks.

Among other things, enhance the colors consistency, so they become more suitable for printing.

Fillers are actually fine-grained white or transparent inorganic powders. As pigments, and they are insoluble in the binder. Fillers added to the binder give transparent dispersion.

Filler task is to replace a certain percentage of expensive pigments and to have positive influence on the properties of printability of inks. In use today there are cheap, mineral fillers, and artificial fillers that are somewhat more expensive.

Artificial fillers are fine-grain white powders, and usually they are received with deposition of hardly soluble salts. These fillers have lower hardness and higher dispersion from natural and so their use is greater.

Because they can change the rheological properties of printing inks, fillers must not chemically react with the binder, or dissolved in it.

cmyk printing

cmyk printing

Aqueous dispersions of fillers are opaque, and oil filler dispersion was partially transparent.

Fillers can differ in chemical composition and fineness of grind. Central particle size is between 0.01 and 1 micron.

Specific gravity of fillers ranges between 1.5 and 4.5 g/cm3. Depending on the color, fillers must be white or transparent and should not affect the tone of the pigment. Fillers must be resistant to binder in long term strategy, and must not chemically react.

Filler China Klej is widespread in nature aluminum silicate. It is obtained by digging, washing, precipitation, drying and calcination. This filler is white fine-grain powder, with soft structures. It is used for deep and screen printing.

Filler Aluminum hydroxide is one of the most important filler in the industry of graphic colors. It is obtained by deposition of aluminum sulfate. It is characterized with the low specific gravity, high dispersion and is very transparent.

It is resistant to light, alkali and water, but not resistant to high temperatures.

It is used to create multicolored and transparent inks.

The most famous fillers used in the manufacture of printing inks are:

– Barium Sulfate

– Aluminum hydroxide

– Magnesium carbonate

– Calcium Carbonate

– Talk

– clay

– Silica

Psychophysical color characteristics

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Colorful inks except wavelength are also characterized by three properties:

  1. Tone of ink or tonality of color of inks quality is determined by the wavelength of light rays, which cause the sensation in the eye and color. That is, quality property from which a colorful ink varies from gray. The color of tone indicates type of ink or ink itself.
  2. The degree of saturation or the amount of white is a measure of color saturation or ink purity. The degree of saturation is talking about the absence of white in a colorful ink. A small degree of saturation is said that the color is pale.
  3. The degree of darkness, brightness, or luminance is content of black in a
    colorful ink. In the degree of darkness in which black gives the greatest degree of darkness, means that the tone of ink is equal to zero.

The color that is determined by three characteristics of tone, brightness and saturation can be described in the diagram with 3 color coordinates or in cylindrical coordinate system.

hsv space

hsv space

– Saturation is the color distance to the radius vector from the achromatic axis.
As much as the distance from the achromatic color axis is greater, the greater is the saturation of colors.

The color that is determined with these three characteristics of tone, brightness and saturation can be described in a diagram with three color coordinates and the cylindrical coordinate system.

On the psychophysical characteristics of inks are coming adjacent to the physical quantities:

  • Tone of ink represents the dominant wavelength.
  • Saturation is the purity.
  • Brightness is the physical size of illumination.
HSL color cylinder

HSL color cylinder

The tone and saturation together are producers of chromaticity of ink.

Requirements for the Printing Inks

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custom printing inks

custom printing inks

Printing inks must be transported from a reservoir and then in a printing-process-specific manner onto the substrate. The ink transfer can take place through:

  1. ink splitting (offset, gravure, and letterpress printing): inking rollers, printing plate, and blanket (in offset) transfer/transport the ink film;
  2. direct ink film transfer from a base foil onto the substrate (hot embossing, thermo transfer);
  3. pressing the ink through openings (screen printing);
  4. spraying on the ink in the form of droplets without making direct contact with the substrate (ink jet).

The inks must dry or cure on the substrate. Here, differentiation is basically made between physical (absorption, evaporation) and chemical drying (oxidation, radiation curing) procedures. Very often a combination of the drying processes is applied. Solidification drying represents a special characteristic whereby inks are fluid in a hot state and then solid after cooling, for instance, hot embossing The ink must have good adhesion to the substrate.

Several methods are common (also combinations):

  1. The ink anchors mechanically to the substrate surface (penetrating into pores, encasing paper fibers); here, a certain pressure between ink carrier (e.g., blanket for offset printing processes) and substrate is required and/or
  2. The ink penetrates into the substrate surface by capillary action (e.g., ink jet).
  3. In the case of extremely smooth surfaces, the ink is held by means of polar interaction (chemical/physical effects) between the ink and substrate.

Color in Graphic Design

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CMYK color printing

CMYK color printing

Utilization of color in graphic design – prepress really is a effective tool to generate an emotional response by consumers. When applied adequately, color has a mighty impact on how consumers can accept the product, service or company. To determine the correct color selection, graphic designer should do cautiously observation.

TYPES OF COLOR –  In graphic design you can find three main color types:

  1.  CMYK
  2.  RGB
  3. Pantone CMYK

CMYK – means (cyan, magenta, yellow, carbon (black)). With combination of these four colors in theory we can easily make all other colors.

RGB – refers to red, green, and blue. This variety of colors is used for what we see on display of computer monitor or TV.

PANTONE – Pantone colors are employed in a process of printing where we want to have exact color matching, so when we want uniformity of colors it is the best to make use of Pantone colors.For example, if somebody intends to print catalog about his firm he will do it applying CMYK model yet he’ll use Pantone color ( known as spot color) for his company’s logo simply to be sure that logo will appears exactly as he wants to be. Use of Pantone (spot) colors will escalate expenses of printing but it is vital when we need to accomplish uniform look of printed material.The only restrict of Pantone colors (however it is the same to all other colors) is their dependence of the type of paper or cardboard on which they will be printed.

DIRECTIONS WHILE USING COLORS

Colors could have different interpretation in different nations. In China white is the color of death. Softer and stronger colors interests consumer with modest incomes despite the fact that clients with highest salaries commonly use more delicate colors.

Color Rainbow Strips

Color Rainbow Strips

MEANING OF COLORS

When doing design designer must have argument for selecting the color he’s going to work with, if not how he is going to convince the contracting authority that the color he select will be the right one for his project?Here are a few of definitions linked with color:

  • Blue: – sky – sea – water – trust – wisdom – trust – loyalty – stability – faith – peace
  • Red: – fire – love – energy – passion – power – danger – heat – warning
  • Green:  -money – growth – envy – loyalty – stability – fertility – environmentally
  • Yellow: -energy – sun – creativity – happiness
  • Orange: – sunlight – joy – success – encouragement – autumn
  • Purple: – power – luxury – nobleness – nobility – spirituality
  • Brown: – earth – stability – organic – open space

Deinking of Paper

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The opportunity to deink paper – basically, to break ink and coatings from it – is vital for renewable recycling of it. Good deinkability is aprerequisite for using used paper to create graphical papers and hygienic paper goods. Effective processes are available in these days for taking away aqueous coatings and sheetfed offset printing inks. It is considerably more hard to achieve good results with UV-cured inks and coatings, the liquid toners applied in digital printing, and inkjet inks. Ink that is taken from recycled pulp can be burned to create energy to run the mill, or sold for making such useful materials as compost or gravel for roads.

Deinking of papaer

Deinking

A single piece of paper may have new fibers as well as fibers who have already been recycled once, twice, or several times. Papermaking fibers can typically be recycled 5-7 times before they come to be too short to be recycled again.

Effective recycling needs clean recovered paper which is free of pollutants such as food, plastic, metal, and other trash. Contaminated paper can introduce impurities and bacteria into the recycling procedure. Moreover, different grades of paper – corrugated boxes, newspapers, and office paper – must be kept separate, because the different grades of recovered paper are used to create particular types of recycled paper products.

reference: offset printing

color wheel spin

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If you look at the basic color circle you will notice that he is distinct on 12 pieces (colors): primary, secondary and tertiary colors and their differences in brightness.

color wheel

color wheel

With Red on the top circle of color is made of three primary colors: Red, Yellow and Blue. Those three colors close triangle inside a circle of colors. Three secondary colors are: Orange, Purple and Green. They turned from mixing primary colors and in a circle of color they are in between them completing another triangle. Tertiary colors that are result of mixing primary and secondary colors are: Red orange, Yellow orange, Yellow green, Blue green, Blue purple and Red purple.

Complementary colors-if you look the circle of color, the color that is diagonally opposite of one color is compliment of that color. Complementary pairs are: Red-Green, Blue-Orange, and Yellow-Purple. Complementary colors clash each other due to the fact that none contains no small part of the other-so when they are together in a single place both strongly emphasizes.

Reference:

Offset printing inks

Offset printing inks

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Offset inks also known as lithographic inks are compounded primarily for use on machines for offset sheetfed printing. Defining the term offset ink – it simply pertains to a very simple principle where the ink and water don’t mix. The images and words are placed on plates, dampened first by water then followed by the ink.

Offset printing inks

Offset printing inks

The ink then adheres to the image area, water to the non-image area. That’s why the offset inks must be capable to withstand reaction with the press fountain solution it encounters on the dampened offset plate. Ideally, the ink on the ink roller must not absorb water (water-in-ink emulsification), neither should the ink break down and mix with the fountain solution on the non-printing areas of the plate (ink-in-water emulsification). Either of these emulsification problems will have a tendency to impair the body, color, or drying qualities of the ink, or trigger tinting on the non-printing regions the plate and printed sheets. The press works the ink, thereby heating it and reducing its viscosity or body, making it flow readily to provide a uniform ink film to the images area of the plate. The ink being used on an offset press needs to be competent to carry the full-intended color and covering power to the paper even with the split-film action. This happens for the reason that offset blanket picks up only a small percentage of the ink from the plate and delivers only a portion of that to the paper. The film of ink getting the plate, then, is very thin, and the ink must be competent to show its full color and opacity with this film.

Offset inks

Offset inks

Offset Ink is produced from three major substances: Pigment, the coloring material in the ink; Vehicle, the liquid that holds the particles of pigment; and Modifiers, which actually control the drying of the ink as well as additional factors such as smell, scuff resistance, and fading.

PIGMENT: There are two basic kinds of pigment used in printing inks. Organic pigment, which happens to be produced from carbon, is used for making black ink. Inorganic pigments, which are produced by mixing various chemicals together, are used for colored inks.

VEHICLE: Vehicle is the liquid that holds the particles of pigment and carries them to the paper. There are two kinds of vehicles applied in offset inks: oils such as soy oil or linseed oil (that’s a yellowish oil made from flax); and synthetic vehicles, that happen to be liquids resulting from the mixture of chemicals. Vehicles control the film properties of the dried ink, such as gloss and rub resistance. They have high viscosity, so the inks are referred to as paste inks.

MODIFIERS: Modifiers are ingredients added to the ink to control drying and other properties such as smell and resistance to fading.

Reference:

Offset printing inks